Farmers Union applauds ditch mowing legislation signature

The Minnesota Farmers Union (MFU) today applauded the signature of Senate File 218 by Governor Mark Dayton that implements a moratorium on the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT) in enforcing permit requirements for mowing and baling in right of way on trunk highways, except for land that adjoins state land, until April 30th, 2018.

MFU had raised concerns with the new permit system MNDOT had announced in December of 2016. Many farmers saw it as unnecessary, confusing and burdensome.

mowing ditches moratorium

Farmers mowing and baling ditches will continue as is for the next year, thanks to legislation signed by Governor Dayton placing a moratorium on a MN-DOT plan to require permits to mow rights-of-ways next to roads.

“Mowing roadsides has been an important source of forage for farmers, controls weeds, and it improves visibility on highways” said MFU President Gary Wertish. “The legislation will give all parties a chance to get together and address issues and MFU encourages farmers to pay attention to this issue over the interim.

“Make sure to be involved in making your voices heard on this issue” added Wertish.

Under the legislation, MNDOT will recommend to the legislative committees with jurisdiction over transportation, agriculture, and natural resources, that there be an establishment of a permit or notification system to mow or hay in a trunk highway right-of-way. The recommendation must be developed with input from agriculture and environmental groups. The recommendation must contain at least the following elements:

(1) ease of permit application or notification;

(2) frequency of permits or notifications;

(3) priority given to the owner or occupant of private land adjacent to a trunk highway right-of-way;

(4) determination of authority to mow or hay in trunk highway right-of-way in which adjacent land is under the jurisdiction of the state or a political subdivision; and

(5) recognition of the differences in the abundance of wildlife habitat based on geographic distribution throughout the state.

MFU thanks Rep. Chris Swedzinski (R-Ghent) and Sen. Gary Dahms (R-Redwood Falls) for their work as chief authors of this legislation.

Minnesota Farmers Union—Standing for Agriculture, Fighting for Farmers (www.mfu.org).

Palmer amaranth detected in Minnesota

 ST. PAUL, Minn. – Crop scientists at the University of Minnesota and officials at the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) urge farmers to check fields for Palmer amaranth, an aggressive weed that can put corn and soybean crops at risk. A plant detected in a native seed planting plot on a Yellow Medicine County farm was confirmed today to be Palmer amaranth. This is the first confirmation of the weed in the state.

The MDA asks possible infestations to be reported by contacting the MDA’s Arrest the Pest line by phone at 1-888-545-6684 or by email at arrest.the.pest@state.mn.us. Landowners are encouraged to email photos of suspected infestations for identification.

“We encourage landowners to scout fields now before harvest for Palmer amaranth and report any possible infestations to the Minnesota Department of Agriculture,” said Geir Friisoe, MDA’s Director of Plant Protection. “The quicker we’re able to identify and start managing this weed, the better our chances will be to minimize the impact to our ag industry.”

Palmer amaranth

Palmer Amaranth has been found in Minnesota and the Department of Agriculture wants farmers to keep an eye on their fields to help nip this in the bud before an infestation can occur. (Photo by Bruce Potter)

 

Palmer amaranth can grow 2 to 3 inches a day, typically reaching 6 to 8 feet, or more, in height. Left uncontrolled, a single female Palmer amaranth plant typically produces 100,000 to 500,000 seeds. It is resistant to multiple herbicides.

It has been found in 28 other states, including Iowa, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

“Palmer amaranth infestations have caused substantial yield losses and greatly increased weed management costs in cotton, soybeans, and corn in the southern states,” said Extension agronomist and crops leader Jeff Gunsolus. “This is a disconcerting, though not completely unexpected, discovery in Minnesota. We have been discussing proper identification procedures with crop consultants over the last three or more years.”

Close-up of Palmer amaranth

Palmer Amaranth has been found in Minnesota fields and it’s important for farmers to watch their fields in order to avoid an outbreak in farm fields across the state. (Photo by Bruce Potter)

 

Extension and MDA officials commend the grower and crop consultant who quickly contacted Extension after discovering a suspected Palmer amaranth plant. The weed is on MDA’s prohibited-eradicated noxious weed list, requiring all above- and below-ground parts of the plant be destroyed. Transportation, propagation or sale of the plants is prohibited.

MDA and Extension continue coordinating action steps to address the weed.

The MDA is investigating how the weed may have been introduced to the state.

In August, an Extension blog updated steps for both prevention and management at z.umn.edu/palamthbknd.

Further information is available at z.umn.edu/MDAPalmerAmaranth.

MDA weed of the month: Garlic Mustard

Garlic Mustard is the MDA weed of the month

Garlic Mustard is a highly invasive, noxious weed that is prevalent in southern Minnesota and rapidly making it’s way north. (Photo from MN Department of Ag)

January’s Weed of the Month is garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata).

Garlic mustard is an edible, biennial herb that emits a strong garlic odor. It was brought to the United States from Europe as a culinary herb. It has naturalized in many eastern and midwestern states.

In Minnesota, it is widespread in the south and is spreading north.  The bad news is garlic mustard is highly invasive. It grows in woodlands, and along trails and waterways. It outcompetes native plants, becoming detrimental to wildlife habitat and biological diversity.

Garlic mustard forms rosettes after seed germination in early spring. In its second year, it forms upright stems that produce flowers in May and June. Seeds begin to develop in slender pods shortly after flowering and are the plants’ primary means of spread.

The plant has distinctive characteristics to distinguish it from other woodland MDA-logoplants. In the rosette stage, the leaves are heart-shaped with toothed margins. When it matures, the leaves along the stem are triangular and the small, white, four-petaled flowers are produced in clusters at the tops of the stems. The plant produces slender seed capsules. Seeds can be spread by water and soil movement on boots and equipment.

Garlic mustard is a restricted noxious weed and cannot be transported, sold, or intentionally propagated in Minnesota. It is recommended that this species be prevented from spreading to new areas and that smaller populations be eradicated.

Managing garlic mustard takes persistence and a focus on preventing flowering, making timing a key component to management.

  • Regular site monitoring for several years will be required to ensure that new seedlings are destroyed and the seedbank is depleted.
  • Hand pulling may be practical for small infestations. Pull plants prior to flowering to prevent seed production. Flowering plants can continue to set seed following removal of soil.
  • Mowing of bolted plants prior to flowering can prevent seed production. All equipment should be inspected and cleaned prior to moving into new areas.
  • Foliar herbicide applications may be effective. If using herbicide treatments, check with your local University of Minnesota Extension agent, co-op, or certified landscape care expert for assistance and recommendations.

MDA Weed of the Month: Poison Ivy

Poison Ivy

Low growing form of poison ivy. (Photo from the Minnesota Department of Agriculture

Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans and T. rybergii) is the only plant native to Minnesota on the noxious weed list. Poison ivy contains toxic compounds that can severely irritate human skin. The leaves, roots, and stems of poison ivy contain an oily resin that causes a rash, blisters, or swelling to human skin. Poison ivy can be found growing in woodland habitats, along fencerows, ditches, pastures, and natural areas. It must be controlled for public safety along rights-of-way, trails, public accesses, business properties open to the public or on parts of lands where public access for business or commerce is granted. It must also be controlled along property borders when requested by adjoining landowners. Though harmful to humans, poison ivy is beneficial for wildlife.

Poison ivy is a perennial that can grow as a climbing vine (T. radicans) or shrub (T. rybergii). The vine form is found only in southeastern Minnesota and the small shrub form is found throughout the state.  Depending on its growth habit, the height of the plant can vary from oneMDA-logo to two feet in the shrub form, and three to 12 feet in the vine form. It can reproduce by seed and shoots that grow from the roots.

The leaves of poison ivy are an important identification characteristic. The leaves are compound and consist of three leaflets that are 2-7 inches long and 1-4 inches wide. The leaves have pointed tips and irregularly toothed margins. They also have prominent mid-veins.

Always be cautious when working in and around this plant, and be aware that the toxic compound can be spread by freshly contaminated clothing, gloves, footwear, and pet hair.

  • Do not burn poison ivy.The toxic compounds can be inhaled from the smoke and cause serious respiratory problems.
  • Control or eradication by hand is not recommended.
  • Mowing may reduce the spread and population size of a poison ivy stand. Wear protective clothing and completely rinse any equipment after operating in poison ivy.
  • Various herbicides have been used successfully to control poison ivy. Check with your local University of Minnesota Extension agent, co-op, or landscape care expert for assistance and recommendations.

MDA Weed of the Month is Yellow Starthistle

January’s Weed of the Month, yellow starthistle (Centurea solstitialis), is a toxic plant that infests millions of acres in the western United States. It is native to Eurasia and was likely brought to North America as a contaminant in alfalfa. Though widespread throughout the western states, there are no known populations in Minnesota.

Yellow starthistle has many characteristics that favor its invasiveness. The plant is an aggressive colonizer of pastures, grasslands, ditches, and disturbed areas. It produces abundant seed for reproduction and the seed remains viable for 10 years. The seed spreads by wind, water, vehicles, wildlife, and by moving contaminated soil and hay. Yellow starthistle depletes soil moisture and decreases species diversity. It is also highly toxic to horses, causing a fatal nervous disorder called “chewing disease”.

This noxious weed on the eradicate list has distinctive identification characteristics. It has yellow flowers with sharp spines at the base of the flower. The spines can injure eyes, noses, and mouths of livestock. An annual plant, it forms a rosette in the fall with lobed leaves. When it sends up the flowering stem in the spring and summer, the branches and stems are rigid and spreading. The stems and leaves are covered in white hairs that give it a grayish color.

Yellow Starthistle

Yellow starthistle flowers have sharp spines that can injure grazing animals. (Photo contributed from the Minnesota Department of Ag)Invi

Residents of Minnesota are asked to be on the lookout for yellow starthistle and to report sightings to the Minnesota Department of Agriculture. Management strategies are aimed at preventing seed formation and spread, and include the following:

  • Buy certified seed to plant hayfields and pastures.
  • Clean equipment, boots, clothes, after being in an infested area.
  • Prescribed burning can be used to effectively manage yellow starthistle.
  • In addition to prevention and cultural management, herbicides can also be used. For specific herbicide recommendations, please contact you regional University of Minnesota Extension Educator.

As a noxious weed on the eradicate list, all above and below ground parts of the plant must be destroyed. To report infestations of yellow starthistle or any other noxious weeds on the eradicate list, please contact Arrest the Pest by voicemail at 888-545-6684 or email at arrest.the.pest@state.mn.us.